Session guard

Session guard

The session guard uses the @adonisjs/session package to login and authenticate users during an HTTP request.

Sessions and cookies have been on the internet for a long time and work great for most applications. Therefore, we recommend using the session guard for server-rendered applications or an SPA web client on the same top-level domain.

Configuring the guard

The authentication guards are defined inside the config/auth.ts file. You can configure multiple guards inside this file under the guards object.

config/auth.ts
import { defineConfig } from '@adonisjs/auth'
import { sessionGuard, sessionUserProvider } from '@adonisjs/auth/session'
const authConfig = defineConfig({
default: 'web',
guards: {
web: sessionGuard({
useRememberMeTokens: false,
provider: sessionUserProvider({
model: () => import('#models/user'),
}),
})
},
})
export default authConfig

The sessionGuard method creates an instance of the SessionGuard class. It accepts a user provider that can be used to find users during authentication and an optional config object to configure the remember tokens behavior.

The sessionUserProvider method creates an instance of the SessionLucidUserProvider class. It accepts a reference to the model to use for authentication.

Performing login

You can login a user using the guard.login method. The method accepts an instance of the User model and creates a login session for them.

In the following example:

  • We use the verifyCredentials from the AuthFinder mixin to find a user by email and password.

  • The auth.use('web') returns an instance of the SessionGuard configured inside the config/auth.ts file.

  • Next, we call the guard.login(user) method to create a login session for the user.

  • Finally, we redirect the user to the /dashboard endpoint. Feel free to customize the redirect endpoint.

import User from '#models/user'
import { HttpContext } from '@adonisjs/core/http'
export default class SessionController {
async store({ request, auth, response }: HttpContext) {
/**
* Step 1: Get credentials from the request body
*/
const { email, password } = request.only(['email', 'password'])
/**
* Step 2: Verify credentials
*/
const user = await User.verifyCredentials(email, password)
/**
* Step 3: Login user
*/
await auth.use('web').login(user)
/**
* Step 4: Send them to a protected route
*/
response.redirect('/dashboard')
}
}

Protecting routes

You can protect routes from unauthenticated users using the auth middleware. The middleware is registered inside the start/kernel.ts file under the named middleware collection.

export const middleware = router.named({
auth: () => import('#middleware/auth_middleware')
})

Apply the auth middleware to the routes you want to protect from unauthenticated users.

import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', () => {})
.use(middleware.auth())

By default, the auth middleware will authenticate the user against the default guard (as defined in the config file). However, you can specify an array of guards when assigning the auth middleware.

In the following example, the auth middleware will attempt to authenticate the request using the web and the api guards.

import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', () => {})
.use(
middleware.auth({
guards: ['web', 'api']
})
)

Handling authentication exception

The auth middleware throws the E_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS if the user is not authenticated. The exception is handled automatically using the following content-negotiation rules.

  • Request with Accept=application/json header will receive an array of errors with the message property.

  • Request with Accept=application/vnd.api+json header will receive an array of errors as per the JSON API spec.

  • The user will be redirected to the /login page for server-rendered applications. You can configure the redirect endpoint within the auth middleware class.

Getting access to the logged-in user

You may access the logged-in user instance using the auth.user property. The value is only available when using the auth middleware or if you call the auth.authenticate or auth.check methods manually.

Using auth middleware
import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', async ({ auth }) => {
await auth.user!.getAllMetrics()
})
.use(middleware.auth())
Manually calling authenticate method
import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', async ({ auth }) => {
/**
* First, authenticate the user
*/
await auth.authenticate()
/**
* Then access the user object
*/
await auth.user!.getAllMetrics()
})

Check if the request is authenticated

You can check if a request has been authenticated using the auth.isAuthenticated flag. The value of auth.user will always be defined for an authenticated request.

import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', async ({ auth }) => {
if (auth.isAuthenticated) {
await auth.user!.getAllMetrics()
}
})
.use(middleware.auth())

Get authenticated user or fail

If you do not like using the non-null assertion operator on the auth.user property, you may use the auth.getUserOrFail method. This method will return the user object or throw E_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS exception.

import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.get('dashboard', async ({ auth }) => {
const user = auth.getUserOrFail()
await user.getAllMetrics()
})
.use(middleware.auth())

Access user within Edge templates

The InitializeAuthMiddleware also shares the ctx.auth property with Edge templates. Therefore, you can access the currently logged-in user via the auth.user property.

@if(auth.isAuthenticated)
<p> Hello {{ auth.user.email }} </p>
@end

If you want to fetch logged-in user information on a non-protected route, you can use the auth.check method to check if the user is logged-in and then access the auth.user property. A great use case for this is displaying the logged-in user information on the website header of a public page.

{{--
This is a public page; therefore, it is not protected by the auth
middleware. However, we still want to display the logged-in
user info in the header of the website.
For that, we use the `auth.check` method to silently check if the
user is logged in and then displays their email in the header.
You get the idea!
--}}
@eval(await auth.check())
<header>
@if(auth.isAuthenticated)
<p> Hello {{ auth.user.email }} </p>
@end
</header>

Performing logout

You can logout a user using the guard.logout method. During logout, the user state will be deleted from the session store. The currently active remember me token will also be deleted (if using remember me tokens).

import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
router
.post('logout', async ({ auth, response }) => {
await auth.use('web').logout()
return response.redirect('/login')
})
.use(middleware.auth())

Using the Remember Me feature

The Remember Me feature automatically login user after their session expires. This is done by generating a cryptographically secure token and saving it as a cookie inside the user's browser.

After the user session has expired, AdonisJS will use the remember me cookie, verify the token's validity, and automatically re-create the logged-in session for the user.

Creating the Remember Me Tokens table

The remember me tokens are saved inside the database, and therefore, you must create a new migration to create the remember_me_tokens table.

node ace make:migration remember_me_tokens
import { BaseSchema } from '@adonisjs/lucid/schema'
export default class extends BaseSchema {
protected tableName = 'remember_me_tokens'
async up() {
this.schema.createTable(this.tableName, (table) => {
table.increments()
table
.integer('tokenable_id')
.notNullable()
.unsigned()
.references('id')
.inTable('users')
.onDelete('CASCADE')
table.string('hash').notNullable().unique()
table.timestamp('created_at').notNullable()
table.timestamp('updated_at').notNullable()
table.timestamp('expires_at').notNullable()
})
}
async down() {
this.schema.dropTable(this.tableName)
}
}

Configuring the tokens provider

To read-write tokens, you will have to assign the DbRememberMeTokensProvider to the User model.

import { BaseModel } from '@adonisjs/lucid/orm'
import { DbRememberMeTokensProvider } from '@adonisjs/auth/session'
export default class User extends BaseModel {
// ...rest of the model properties
static rememberMeTokens = DbRememberMeTokensProvider.forModel(User)
}

Enabling Remember Me tokens inside the config

Finally, let's enable the useRememberTokens flag on the session guard config inside the config/auth.ts file.

import { defineConfig } from '@adonisjs/auth'
import { sessionGuard, sessionUserProvider } from '@adonisjs/auth/session'
const authConfig = defineConfig({
default: 'web',
guards: {
web: sessionGuard({
useRememberMeTokens: true,
rememberMeTokensAge: '2 years',
provider: sessionUserProvider({
model: () => import('#models/user'),
}),
})
},
})
export default authConfig

Remembering users during login

Once the setup is completed, you can generate the remember me token and cookie using the guard.login method as follows.

import User from '#models/user'
import { HttpContext } from '@adonisjs/core/http'
export default class SessionController {
async store({ request, auth, response }: HttpContext) {
const { email, password } = request.only(['email', 'password'])
const user = await User.verifyCredentials(email, password)
await auth.use('web').login(
user,
/**
* Generate token when "remember_me" input exists
*/
!!request.input('remember_me')
)
response.redirect('/dashboard')
}
}

Using the guest middleware

The auth package ships with a guest middleware you can use to redirect the logged-in users from accessing the /login page. This should be done to avoid creating multiple sessions for a single user on a single device.

import router from '@adonisjs/core/services/router'
import { middleware } from '#start/kernel'
router
.get('/login', () => {})
.use(middleware.guest())

By default, the guest middleware will check the user logged-in status using the default guard (as defined in the config file). However, you can specify an array of guards when assigning the guest middleware.

router
.get('/login', () => {})
.use(middleware.guest({
guards: ['web', 'admin_web']
}))

Finally, you can configure the redirect route for the logged-in users inside the ./app/middleware/guest_middleware.ts file.

Events

Please check the events reference guide to view the list of available events emitted by the Auth package.