Mocks and fakes

Mocks and fakes

When testing your applications, you might want to mock or fake specific dependencies to prevent actual implementations from running. For example, you wish to refrain from emailing your customers when running tests and neither call third-party services like a payment gateway.

AdonisJS offers a few different APIs and recommendations using which you can fake, mock, or stub a dependency.

Using the fakes API

Fakes are objects with working implementations explicitly created for testing. For example, The mailer module of AdonisJS has a fake implementation that you can use during testing to collect outgoing emails in memory and write assertions for them.

We provide fake implementations for the following container services. The fakes API is documented alongside the module documentation.

Dependency injection and fakes

If you use dependency injection in your application or use the container to create class instances, you can provide a fake implementation for a class using the container.swap method.

In the following example, we inject UserService to the UsersController.

import UserService from '#services/user_service'
import { inject } from '@adonisjs/core'
export default class UsersController {
index(, service: UserService) {}

During testing, we can provide an alternate/fake implementation of the UserService class as follows.

import UserService from '#services/user_service'
import app from '@adonisjs/core/services/app'
test('get all users', async () => {
class FakeService extends UserService {
all() {
return [{ id: 1, username: 'virk' }]
* Swap `UserService` with an instance of
* `FakeService`
app.container.swap(UserService, () => {
return new FakeService()
* Test logic goes here

Once the test has been completed, you must restore the fake using the container.restore method.

// Restore all

Mocks and stubs using Sinon.js

Sinon is a mature, time-tested mocking library in the Node.js ecosystem. If you use mocks and stubs regularly, we recommend using Sinon, as it works great with TypeScript.

Mocking network requests

If your application makes outgoing HTTP requests to third-party services, you can use nock during testing to mock the network requests.

Since nock intercepts all outgoing requests from the Node.js HTTP module, it works with almost every third-party library like got, axios and so on.

Freezing time

You may use the timekeeper package to freeze or travel time when writing tests. The timekeeper packages works by mocking the Date class.

In the following example, we encapsulate the API of timekeeper inside a Japa Test resource.

import { getActiveTest } from '@japa/runner'
import timekeeper from 'timekeeper'
export function timeTravel(secondsToTravel: number) {
const test = getActiveTest()
if (!test) {
throw new Error('Cannot use "timeTravel" outside of a Japa test')
const date = new Date()
date.setSeconds(date.getSeconds() + secondsToTravel)
test.cleanup(() => {

You may use the timeTravel method inside your tests as follows.

import { timeTravel } from '#test_helpers'
test('expire token after 2 hours', async ({ assert }) => {
* Travel 3 hours into the future
timeTravel(60 * 60 * 3)